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Lymphatic system

Lymphatic system structure and functions | AngioLife advice from a lymphologist

In the human body there are many important organs and "organ systems". Cardiovascular, nervous, humoral, respiratory, digestive, osteoarticular, muscular and other systems of organs that form the whole human body.


The cardiovascular system can conditionally be divided into:

a heart that performs a pumping function;
arterial system - due to which blood, saturated with oxygen and nutrients, is carried to organs and tissues;
venous system - which includes vessels, blood, in which it gives away nutrients and oxygen to organs and flows from them to the lungs;
lymphatic system - responsible for the movement of interstitial fluid and providing an immune response.
 All these systems maintain the constancy of the internal environment of the body, provide conditions for its normal functioning.

The lymphatic system is the most poorly understood and mysterious among others, but one of the most important in its significance and function!

The lymphatic system is part of the cardiovascular system, which is not a closed system. It consists of lymphatic vessels and lymphoid organs.

Lymphatic vessels are divided into: capillaries, vessels, trunks and ducts that flow into the venous bed at the level of the venous angle (formed between the jugular and subclavian veins).


The organs of the lymphatic system include:

  • Lymph nodes
  • Spleen
  • Thymus (thymus gland)
  • Tonsils (Pirogov ring)
  • Peyer's small bowel plaques
  • Lymphocytes

Daily in the body as a result of the physiological work of the lymphatic system, two to four liters of lymph are formed.

Lymph is an intercellular fluid that penetrates the lymphatic capillaries due to ultrafiltration in tissues, which in turn does not depend on the concentration of molecules, but on osmotic and hydrostatic pressures.


Лімфатична система


The main functions of the lymphatic system:

  • Transport function - is carried out due to the return of intercellular fluid and protein structures from the intercellular space into the bloodstream.
  • The absorbent function in the gastrointestinal tract is the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. The transport of fats in the body occurs as a result of the lymphatic system.
  • Protective or immune function. Due to the lymph nodes in which the lymph is purified and filtered from bacteria, viruses, pathological cells. As well as the transport of antibodies and antigens.
  • Homeostatic function - provides a constant water balance.


The mechanisms of lymphatic fluid transport in the body:

  • Lymph formation
  • The work of lymphangion. Lymphangion is a structural unit of the lymphatic vessel shown in the picture. It consists of the walls of the lymphatic vessel and valves, which provide one-way lymph movement.
  • Muscular contraction of the limbs while moving.
  • Pulse wave
  • Breathing, negative pressure arising in the chest during the act of breathing provides lymph flow.




Today, the treatment of diseases of the lymphatic system remains the most unexplored and frightening field in medicine for doctors




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